The isolated design seen left generally features a mainpalmette surrounded by a circular vine, and eight alternating-colored stylized flowers. While the isolated repeating pattern is square, the overall impression appeals to what would be classified as a "lattice" design. Flowers used often resemble a top view of a pomegranite. Rugs which sometimes feature the Mina Khani design are as follows: Tehran, Veramin varamin , Luri Lori , Belouch, tabriz, and many others.
The Rosette design is a circular arrangement of motifs radiating out from the centre medallion suggesting the petals of a rose. This can be used in the borders however is mostly limited to the field and can be in either naturalistic or geometric form. The Rosette design is often found in Nain rugs.
This is the name given to a group of palmettes which can be found in all-over and medallion designs as well as in borders. But is perhaps most common in Tabriz rugs. Title: The Drowning Pool. Medium: Poster. Size: 22 X 28 in. Condition All condition information is available by contacting Lotus at or email at lotusauctions gmail. See Sold Price. Save Item. One minute we were on Ozzfest having the experience of a lifetime, and the next moment our whole lives were rocked with the sudden loss of our brother.
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Drummer Mike Luce mentioned, "The new album has a wider range covering more ground. Songs like "Step Up" and "Hate" are just straight up hard rock, while "Love and War" and "This Life" have slow, heavy passion behind them. In most Persian rugs, the pile is of sheep's wool. Its characteristics and quality vary from each area to the next, depending on the breed of sheep, climatic conditions, pasturage, and the particular customs relating to when and how the wool is shorn and processed.
Usually, sheep are shorn in spring and fall. The spring shear produces wool of finer quality. The lowest grade of wool used in carpet weaving is "skin" wool, which is removed chemically from dead animal skin. Merino wool from New Zealand , because the high demand on carpet wool cannot be entirely met by the local production. Fibers from camels and goats are also used. Goat hair is mainly used for fastening the borders, or selvedges, of nomadic rugs like Baluch rugs, since it is more resistant to abrasion.
Camel wool is occasionally used in Persian nomadic rugs. It is often dyed in black, or used in its natural colour. More often, wool said to be camel's wool turns out to be dyed sheep wool. Cotton forms the foundation of warps and wefts of the majority of modern rugs.
Nomads who cannot afford to buy cotton on the market use wool for warps and wefts, which are also traditionally made of wool in areas where cotton was not a local product. Cotton can be spun more tightly than wool, and tolerates more tension, which makes cotton a superior material for the foundation of a rug. Especially larger carpets are more likely to lie flat on the floor, whereas wool tends to shrink unevenly, and carpets with a woolen foundation may buckle when wet.
Silk is an expensive material, and has been used for representative carpets. Its tensile strength has been used in silk warps, but silk also appears in the carpet pile. Silk pile can be used to highlight special elements of the design. High-quality carpets from Kashan, Qum, Nain, and Isfahan have all-silk piles. Silk pile carpets are often exceptionally fine, with a short pile and an elaborate design. Silk pile is less resistant to mechanical stress, thus, all-silk piles are often used as wall hangings , or pillows.
The fibers of wool, cotton, and silk are spun either by hand or mechanically by using spinning wheels or industrial spinning machines to produce the yarn. The direction in which the yarn is spun is called twist.
Yarns are characterized as S-twist or Z-twist according to the direction of spinning see diagram. Generally, handspun single plies are spun with a Z-twist, and plying is done with an S-twist. Like nearly all Islamic rugs with the exception of Mamluk carpets, nearly all Persian rugs use "Z" anti-clockwise spun and "S" clockwise -plied wool. The dyeing process involves the preparation of the yarn in order to make it susceptible for the proper dyes by immersion in a mordant.
Dyestuffs are then added to the yarn which remains in the dyeing solution for a defined time. The dyed yarn is then left to dry, exposed to air and sunlight. Some colours, especially dark brown, require iron mordants, which can damage or fade the fabric.
This often results in faster pile wear in areas dyed in dark brown colours, and may create a relief effect in antique oriental carpets. Traditional dyes used in Persian rugs are obtained from plants and insects. In , the English chemist William Henry Perkin invented the first aniline dye, mauveine. A variety of other synthetic dyes were invented thereafter. Cheap, readily prepared and easy to use as they were compared to natural dyes, their use is documented since the mid s.
The tradition of natural dyeing was revived in Turkey in the early s. Chemical analyses led to the identification of natural dyes from antique wool samples, and dyeing recipes and processes were experimentally re-created.
Some of the dyestuffs like indigo or madder were goods of trade, and thus commonly available. Yellow or brown dyestuffs more substantially vary from region to region. Many plants provide yellow dyes, like Vine weld, or Dyer's weed Reseda luteola , Yellow larkspur, or Dyer's sumach Cotinus coggygria. Grape leaves and pomegranate rinds, as well as other plants, provide different shades of yellow. In Iran, traditional dyeing with natural dyes was revived in the s, inspired by the renewed general interest in traditionally produced rugs, but master dyers like Abbas Sayahi had kept alive the knowledge about the traditional recipes.
Carmine dyes are obtained from resinous secretions of scale insects such as the Cochineal scale Coccus cacti , and certain Porphyrophora species Armenian and Polish cochineal.
Cochineal dye, the so-called "laq" was formerly exported from India, and later on from Mexico and the Canary Islands. Insect dyes were more frequently used in areas where Madder Rubia tinctorum was not grown, like west and north-west Persia. With modern synthetic dyes , nearly every colour and shade can be obtained so that without chemical analysis it is nearly impossible to identify, in a finished carpet, whether natural or artificial dyes were used. Modern carpets can be woven with carefully selected synthetic colours, and provide artistic and utilitarian value.
Abrash is seen in traditionally dyed oriental rugs. Its occurrence suggests that a single weaver has likely woven the carpet, who did not have enough time or resources to prepare a sufficient quantity of dyed yarn to complete the rug. Only small batches of wool were dyed from time to time. When one string of wool was used up, the weaver continued with the newly dyed batch.
Because the exact hue of colour is rarely met again when a new batch is dyed, the colour of the pile changes when a new row of knots is woven in. As such, the colour variation suggests a village or tribal woven rug, and is appreciated as a sign of quality and authenticity.
Abrash can also be introduced on purpose into a newly planned carpet design. Indigo, historical dye collection of the Dresden University of Technology , Germany. Kermez Coccus cacti lice. Section central medallion of a South Persian rug, probably Qashqai, late 19th century, showing irregular blue colours abrash. The weaving of pile rugs is a time-consuming process which, depending on the quality and size of the rug, may take anywhere from a few months to several years to complete.
To begin making a rug, one needs a foundation consisting of warps and wefts: Warps are strong, thick threads of cotton, wool or silk which run through the length of the rug. Similar threads which pass under and over the warps from one side to the other are called wefts. The warps on either side of the rug are normally plied into one or more strings of varying thickness that are overcast to form the selvedge. Weaving normally begins from the bottom of the loom, by passing a number of wefts through the warps to form a base to start from.
Knots of dyed wool, cotton or silk threads are then tied in rows around consecutive sets of adjacent warps. As more rows are tied to the foundation, these knots become the pile of the rug. Between each row of knots, one or more shots of weft are passed to keep the knots fixed. The wefts are then beaten down by a comb-like instrument, the comb beater, to further compact and secure the newly-woven row.
Depending on the fineness of the weave, the quality of the materials and the expertise of the weavers, the knot count of a handmade rug can vary anywhere from 16 to knots per square inch. When the rug is completed, the warp ends form the fringes that may be weft-faced, braided, tasseled, or secured in other ways.
Looms do not vary greatly in essential details, but they do vary in size and sophistication. The main technical requirement of the loom is to provide the correct tension and the means of dividing the warps into alternate sets of leaves.
A shedding device allows the weaver to pass wefts through crossed and uncrossed warps, instead of laboriously threading the weft in and out of the warps. The simplest form of loom is a horizontal; one that can be staked to the ground or supported by sidepieces on the ground. The necessary tension can be obtained through the use of wedges. This style of loom is ideal for nomadic people as it can be assembled or dismantled and is easily transportable.
Rugs produced on horizontal looms are generally fairly small and the weave quality is inferior to those rugs made on a professional standing loom. The technically more advanced, stationary vertical looms are used in villages and town manufactures.
The more advanced types of vertical looms are more comfortable, as they allow for the weavers to retain their position throughout the entire weaving process.
The Tabriz type of vertical loom allows for weaving of carpets up to double the length of the loom, while there is no limit to the length of the carpet that can be woven on a vertical roller beam loom. In essence, the width of the carpet is limited by the length of the loom beams. There are three general types of vertical looms, all of which can be modified in a number of ways: the fixed village loom, the Tabriz or Bunyan loom, and the roller beam loom.
The weaver needs a number of essential tools: a knife for cutting the yarn as the knots are tied; a heavy comb-like instrument with a handle for packing down the wefts; and a pair of shears for trimming the pile after a row of knots, or a small number of rows, have been woven. In Tabriz the knife is combined with a hook to tie the knots, which speeds up work.
A small steel comb is sometimes used to comb out the yarn after each row of knots is completed. A variety of additional instruments are used for packing the weft.
Some weaving areas in Iran known for producing very fine pieces use additional tools. In Kerman , a saber like instrument is used horizontally inside the shed.
In Bijar , a nail-like tool is inserted between the warps, and beaten on in order to compact the fabric even more. Bijar is also famous for their wet loom technique, which consists of wetting the warp, weft, and yarn with water throughout the weaving process to compact the wool and allow for a particularly heavy compression of the pile, warps, and wefts.
When the rug is complete and dried, the wool and cotton expand, which results in a very heavy and stiff texture. See more. Liliane Rosa. Another Day, You're Leaving. The Machines take me way.
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