The Kupferschiefer can be found in outcrop or in the subsurface straddling six countries, including parts of the southern North Sea. The lateral equivalent outcropping in England is called Marl Slate. Despite its distinctive nature, the Kupferschiefer is not ranked as a formation but is officially declared a sub-unit of the Werra Formation , the lowest formation of the Zechstein Group, overlying the Rotliegend Group.
The unit has been dated to The Kupferschiefer comprises black shales , bituminous marls , mudstones and limestones deposited mostly in an open marine setting, with the borders of its extension deposited in a shallow marine environment. At time of deposition, the area what is now northern Europe was covered by an enclosed sea; the Zechstein sea, characterized by anoxic conditions. The Kupferschiefer is renowned for hosting one of the most important copper deposits in the world, which were mined at least since AD.
Other mineral resources found in the unit include zinc , vanadium , lead and silver. Famous finds from the unit include Parasaurus geinitzi , Protorosaurus speneri , Coelurosauravus jaekeli and Glaurung schneideri.
In the Rossenray 2 shaft, the unit reaches a maximum thickness of 2 metres 6. The Kupferschiefer was deposited in a highstand setting,  in a deep enclosed basin, covered by the Zechstein sea that was present on the paleocontinent Laurussia , the northern part of Pangea.
The climate of the Late Permian was extremely variable, with polar icecaps present near the south pole and hot and arid conditions prevailing in the tropic and paleotemperate regions of the northern and southern hemispheres. Apatite oxygen isotope analysis has revealed that the Late Permian was characterized by a drastic increase in global temperatures, accompanied by a strong rise of eustatic sea level.
The rise in oxygen isotope values was possibly related to an increase in volcanic activity. Prehistoric finds of slag and bronze from smelting sites on top of or immediately adjacent to outcropping Kupferschiefer ores at Wettelrode , Mohrungen , and Bottendorf in Central Germany evidence Early to Middle Bronze Age mining of the Kupferschiefer ores.
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Find Your Ship. Where Can We Take You? See Where We Sail. Grand Voyages. Playa Alambique, the first beach heading east from the neighbor capital city of San Juan , a favorite for both locals and visitors. Alambique is a fun city beach with a very laid back atmosphere, offering very convenient amenities to make the visit more enjoyable such as beach chair and umbrella rentals, restaurants nearby and plenty of taxis around to take you back to your hotel. The waters are calmer than Ocean Park and Condado Beach making it more popular among families wanting to enjoy swimming and doing water sports.
We recently had a chance to visit Hurtigruten's newest flagship in Vancouver, after it completed its journey through the Northwest Passage. Notable, because the ship is named after Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen, the first person to do just that in The following things stood out to us about Hurtigruten's Roald Amundsen, a small ship with a big name -- and a potentially big impact on the cruise industry.
So what does that mean exactly? Think of it as a Prius model with Rolls Royce mechanics the luxury car brand was contracted for vessel design and equipment, including much of it on the bridge -- up to and including the captain's chair. Two giant batteries, developed by Vancouver-based firm Corvus Energy, run in tandem with the ship's engine to conserve energy and ultimately cut fuel emissions by 20 percent. CEO Daniel Skjeldam believes that battery power, not LNG liquefied natural gas , is the way forward for the cruise business, and he hopes to remain industry leaders in sustainability at sea.
Newer, stronger batteries are already in development, and in the years to come Hurtigruten plans to retrofit all of its ships, in part, with battery power. The company believes that fully emission-free cruising could be a reality in the next 10 to 20 years.
The "toys" onboard Roald Amundsen are not meant to dazzle passengers in a distracting way, but enhance the destination experience onboard. Rather than the overhead drones we've all become familiar with, newly developed underwater drones are able to capture sounds and images from beneath the sea -- from a pod of whales or a curious seal.
We're told the drones don't disrupt the marine life. In place of flashy chandeliers or sculptures, the centerpiece of the ship's atrium is a staggering, seven-deck-tall LED screen. Visible from the atrium's glass elevators, the screen showcases all of Hurtigruten's other destinations. Rolf, our tour guide, noting lots of glass and floor-to-ceiling windows in places like the Explorers Lounge, told us, "We like to bring the outside in; to show you things you can't see at home.
In the spirit of embracing the destination on primarily polar expeditions , the main activities onboard Roald Amundsen each day revolve around heading ashore or into inflatables for a closer view of the ice and the wildlife.The Waterfront is another NCL innovation: an oceanfront promenade designed to connect passengers with the sea while dining al fresco at one of the specialty restaurants or bars. The pièce de résistance, however, is the 20, ft² observation lounge which comprises the entire forward area of .