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If Monteverdi, furtherer of opera, must thus summarily be dealt with, Carissimi, elaborator of cantata and oratorio, deserves at least mention; great men, both of them, a self-made and "radical," first to prove definitely the expressive possibilities of the recitativo. Music was beginning to assume dramatic values. Among Carissimi's pupils the most important was Alessandro Scarfluent writer, himself an excellent latti, 10 Alia Breve teacher, whom father of belongs Domenico Scarlatti, to the distinction of having evolved the harpsichord style which became a model for future piano music.
As to Arcangelo Corelli, one is tempted to see in him even more than a precursor. Orchestra technique owed much to him. If, as we are told, he insisted on uniformity in bowing with his players of stringed instruments, it was probably because he was the first to see the need of an even and pliable orchestral body, preparing by concertos. Diversity gained, in instrumental music, the famous Orchestra under Stamitz.
France, on the other hand, in these years of fermentation, had the least of musical yeast to offer, and before the advent of Jean Philippe Rameau, animated with the spirit of research, savant as much as fashioner of beautiful and before Rameau, France could living sounds — boast only of Jean Baptiste Lully, Italian by birth and character, "creator of a style music which, since his time, instead of advancing towards perfection, as is imagined, has perhaps lost more than it has gained.
Across the the road was opened by Schiitz, brought up under Italian teachers though Rhine, 12 Alia Breve he was, a Teuton to the core, and worthy to take first rank as pioneer in German music. Buxtehude and the erudite Kuhnau, carried on his work, the first in opera, the others in organ composition and chamber music craftsmen of merit all, commanding figures none of them.
Here entered Bach. Musical talent had distinguished many of his ancestors, and among his eleven sons were several noted musicians, who, in their Keiser, Pachelbel, — attracted even greater attention than did their illustrious parent.
But they have gone the way of all flesh; their compositions, with few exceptions, have been forgotten, while the name and works of the great Johann Sebastian are still alive to-day and bid fair to outlive the music of tomorrow. With Spring's beginning, on March 21, , Bach came into the world and brought to it a newer, richer spring of music than it had ever known. He was born in the lovely lifetime, Johann Sebastian Bach 13 town of Eisenach, nestled among the pine- and oak-covered mountains of Thuringia, with the famous Wartburg towering above the valleys, that ancient castle where Martin Luther translated the Bible into old the language of the people.
Bach, a mu- was brought up and steeped in the very air of Protestant simplicity and What Luther did for the uprightness. Bible, Bach did for music, in making it speak sical reformer, a language that goes straight to the heart of all people.
Many of his loftiest pages were written for the service of the church. Here he was accepted as chorister at St. Michael's, was taught the 14 Alia Breve violin, organ and clavichord, and was faand rudiments of miliarized with the rules composition. He made frequent pilgrim- ages to other towns, tramping the high-roads alone or in the company of fellow-students, Thus he walked all the way to Lubeck to meet old Buxtehude.
The example of renowned masters stimulated him to gain ever greater to hear other musicians perform. When he fin- ished his studies, he went, as was the custom of the day, into the employ of princes or wealthy parishes, as court musician or church organist. After a short stay in Weimar, as violinist of the ducal orchestra, he obtained a position New Church at Arnstadt, was here that, in , the Consistory formally charged him with having been in the habit of making surprising variationes in the chorales, and intermixing as organist of the in Thuringia.
It divers strange sounds, so that thereby the congregation were confounded. His fame spread throughout the land, although no amount of honors could change his simple, homely ways. In he was named court composer to the Elector of Saxony, then also King of Poland. In he accepted an nau. Bach had been nearsighted from childhood, a failing that had become aggravated by his long and industrious copying of older masterworks and of his own compositions, which was necessary in the days when the printing of music was a rare and expensive luxury.
At last, in , an unsuccessful operation on his eyes was followed by total blindness. His general health declined. He regained his sight unexpectedly on July 10, , but was stricken with apoplexy ten days later, and died on July He had been working to the very end, and his prolificness is as remarkable as his About one-third of the music originality.
It may be divided into four groups: 1 the study material that he wrote for the members of his family and his Even sic is so, Johan n Sebastian Bach many pupils; this material 17 includes the "Well-tempered Clavichord"; 2 the Preludes, Fugues, Toccatas, etc.
Built on the foundafinest achievements. Bach's set- tings of the Lord's Passion according to St. John, and his B minor Mass, belong to the greatest music of all Matthew and St. It is for the great things are remembered, but for the we little do, that things, that Bach's work are loved. We Alia Breve 18 are so apt to see in of all musical science, him only the abstract weigh his powers as a contrapuntist, admire his architectural mas- tery on a gigantic scale.
The father of twenty children was a family-man, going about his business undisturbed by whining babies, writing little tunes for his wife, Anna Magdalena, and for his boys when they grew up. The austere and patriarchal head of the house was also of a sensuous and loving nature, simple and passionate.
It is not only the supreme agony of Christ that moves his big heart to strain tucked sublime utterance; away many a in this or that cantata, suite or concerto, betrays the vibrant soul that depends as much on the joys of this world as it hopes in those of the next. Circumspect and versatile, Bach was observant of all that went on, musically, around him. His industry, his fixedness of purpose, have not been surpassed.
The "modernity" of harmonic progression he often indulged in, remains almost as baffling to us Johann Sebastian Bach as it Under 19 was to the Consistory of Arnstadt. The glory of God, the inexorable majesty of Death, have never been made more plausible to the mind of man, than in some eight or sixteen measures of a Bach chorale. When concerned with the great issues of human destiny, his music breathes immortal life and lifts us from out the narrowing conceptions of space and time.
II HANDEL His works form, as it were, a monument, solitary and colossal, raised at the end of some blind avenue from which the true path of advance has branched, and which, stately and splendid though it be, is not the vestibule through which art has passed to the discovery and exploration of new forms of beauty. History does not tell whether the immediate consequences of the discovery were sensibly painful for little George; but if they were, they did not deter him from pursuing, all his life, a vocation to which his singular genius called him in spite of his father's wish that he should be a lawyer.
And the little player in a nightie grew up to be a great master in a fine periwig, clothed in silk and velvet, decked with jewels, the friend of  24 Alia Breve kings and dukes, basking in the glorious rays and universal veneration.
Handel was born at Halle, in Saxony, on February 23 of the year , or a little less than a month before the birth-date of J. Bach, whom he survived by nine years, dying at London on April 14, But the lives of these two great contemporaries have little in common, save that both lost Bach their eyesight with advancing age.
Bach never left the shadow of the church; Handel was always drawn to the footlights of the Bach is the luminous daybreak, stage. Handel the towering sunset cloud. Simulof popular they taneous, are well nigh antipodal. Providence played an important role in the life of Handel. A chance visit with his father, a bleeder and surgeon, to the his German princeling who expressed delight when he happened to hear the boy play, court of a lessons. After the father's death, in , Handel, prompted by filial devotion, finished and in , as law student, he entered the newly inaugurated Uni- his school education, versity of Halle; he also filled a position of church-organist, as a means of livelihood.
This entailed the writing of much music for the services, and it is estimated that "in twelve or fourteen months Handel composed several hundred cantatas! Hamburg, where German opera troupe resided of the day, by the eminent and prolific Reinhard Keiser. Handel entered the theatre directed orchestra as a violinist, later advancing to the post of clavecinist, and finally graduating conductor.
All the while he busied himself with the writing of operas, some of which were successfully produced. Handel's avowed could be developed only in the land where opera had been invented a mere hundred years earlier and was then especially flourishing; that land was Italy.
Handel crossed the Alps in , and spent three fruitful years in studying the works of Italian masters, among whom he made many friends, and writing, in turn, many master works of his own which won him the enthusiastic plaudits of music-loving Florence, Venice, Naples and Rome.
On his re- return to Germany, he accepted a position as court musician to the Elector of Hanover. The new him went to England on a "leave of absence. There his operas became the rage. Fame and money effaced all memories of, and sense of obligation to, his Hanoverian employer.
The English desire to see countries seized soon, however, and in he 28 Alia Breve court attracted him more; and, not paus- ing to weigh political considerations, he wrote a "Te Deum" in praise of the peace of Utrecht, signed in , whereby England was distinctly favored at the expense of the Continent, including the sulking Elector of Hanover.
Providence seemed sadly remiss when in , according to dynastic settle- ment, this very Prince, as George I, ascended the throne of Great Britain. Handel was in But Providence an awkward situation. Thereafter, Handel was in high favor at the Court.
For a time he was attached as organist to the Duke of Chandos; he gave the daughters of the Prince of Wales lessons on the harpsichord, writing for the young ladies, among other studies, "The Harmonious Blacksmith. Princes of the blood royal and princesses of song pass before us in a iong and brilgood genii who bring treasures to the box office, demons sowing the seeds of jealousy; magic airs which charm a populace, florid liant chain, tragic complications spelling ruin.
Competition added to the zest of the game. If the composers Bononcini and Porpora were not trying to steal the thunderbolt from Handel, it was La Cuzzoni bent on wresting from La Faustina the fulgurating flash of — — coloratura. Intrigues, mismanagement, the Alia Breve 30 with rival race companies, led finally to Discouraged and broken Handel's failure. Cured from a passing illness caused by worries and nervous exertions, he showed in his oratorios "Saul" and "Israel in Egypt" both written in that the old vigor re- mained, it if The was not even redoubled.
Destined to become an institution of Musical Christendom, first it was publicly performed at Dublin on April 13th, In , I performed in his band, sometimes on the violin, and sometimes on the tenor, and by attending the at his own house rehearsals, generally Lower Brook in Street, and sometimes at Carlton House, at the desire of his constant patron the late Prince of Wales, I gratified my eager curiosity in seeing and examining the person and manners of so extraordinary a man, as well hearing him perform on the organ.
They are not inter- Alia Breve 32 spersed with chorales in the singing of which a pious congregation joins. His theatrical mannerisms he retained. While his subjects are sometimes biblical, they are more often His melodies mythological or allegoric. Ill GLUCK vous esperez que je vais mettre Gretry audessus de Gluck parce que 1'impression du moment, fut-elle plus faible, doit effacer celle qui est j'aime, eloignee?
Eh, bien, il n'en sera rien je cheris le talent de M. Gretry, et j'estime et admire celui de M. Mile, de Lespinasse. The opera is a mongrel thing, and, for that reason perhaps, with native conception in the last years of the sixteenth century have caused its growth to be marked by so many crises. This offspring from the union of Poetry and Music, has also inherited important traits from other and more distant relatives, such as Painting, Sculpture, Architecture, the Drama and the Pantomime.
It has always had to suffer from the jealous weaknesses which afflicted is — ever since its interference of these different strains. Gluck, in his endeavor to fight the surfeit of florid and meaningless melody indulged in by the Italian school of , not only reorganized the opera, but paved a way for Beethoven's Ninth Symphony, as well as for Mozart's "Don Giovanni. Then followed Debussy with "Pelleas et Melisande," writing music in which the spoken phrase again became decisive for the melodic curve of the voice-parts much in accordance with Monteverdi's practice.
Lastly, Igor Stravinsky's "Petroushka," abolishing the word completely, reverts to Christoph Willibald Gluck pantomime and dance alone. The 37 circle seems closed, so far as concerns operatic But music has made greater possibilities.
The opera stage that place where all the Seven Arts so strangely mingle has been the favorite battleground on which these rival relatives have settled their pretensions to supremacy. It is significant that in these combats music should oftenest have championed the cause of either poetry, the drama, or of painting, rather than her own, and yet — — have reaped the spoils of victory herself in what is not merely peculiar to dramatic ends, but most essentially musical.
Every time that operatic reform was sought,- it was muAnd reform, sical reform that was achieved. Burney, after meeting the com- poser at Vienna in , was justified in "The Chevalier Gluck is simplifying music. But the story of how writing: Gluck was led to realize the need for simpliand succeeded in accomplishing it, fication is not so easily told, particularly as his early life and development is much of shrouded in comparative darkness.
The village parish of the register of Weidenwang, a Bavarian Palatinate, shows that "Christophorus Wilibaldus" was baptized there on July 4, , but it is now generally accepted that he was born at the nearby Erasbach not far from the Bohemian border on the second day of the month.
The station of Gluck's parents was of the most humble. His father was a for- Christoph Willibald Gluck ester in the services of various 39 Austrian and Bohemian noblemen. The family was undoubtedly of Czech origin. It seems that in the Glucks were transferred to the Bohemian estates of Prince Lobkowitz, near the town of Komotau. Christoph inherited the love of music characteristic of the Bohemian race, and grew up in a country where the rich Catholic convents and landed gentry cultivated all surroundings talents.
He arts, could especially music. In order to replenish his meagre purse, he gave music lessons, sang in church and played for dances, receiving his pay sometimes in victuals. At Prague, the Minorite father Bohuslav Czernohorsky who had been choirmaster at Saint Anne's of Padua and organist at Assisi gave Gluck the first systematic instruction in composition.
Through the munificence Alia Breve 40 Gluck was enabled in Vienna, where he continued of Prince Lobkowitz, to go to his studies and often played at musical en- tertainments in the house of his benefactor. There he attracted the attention of the Italian Count Melzi, who engaged him as "private musician," and in took him to Milan where he placed young Gluck under the direction of J.
Gluck re- mained for four years the pupil of this able musician. In , was nearing "Artaserse," its when his apprenticeship end, he wrote his to words first opera, by Metastasio ; it and proved a great Gluck, at that time, was imbued success. His fame as an opera composer began to spread beyond the boundaries of Italy. In , were not favorable to opera. Handel, as a producer, had just gone through another In London the Rebellion was ragfailure. Finally, ing; all foreigners were suspected.
Handel had a very poor opinion of the young composer's talents. Gluck also met Dr. Arne in Lon- What don. It London days and simple Gluck, is is certain that to to Gluck's bitter experience with the unsuccessful adaptation of new words his striving to some of for his older tunes, dates and his and music should closely "simplification" realization that text fit each other: the word-sense admits of only one musical interpretation, which must be emotionally telling, metrically correct, 42 Alia Breve and supported by combinations of ments which lend proper coloring dramatic situation.
Alert and ambitious and grasping in old age, in his instru- to the youth, vain always bent upon the pleasures and riches of this world, Gluck had that shrewdly calculating mind which, paired with abundant inborn talent, produces the most spectacular careers of genius. After returning to Germany in , Gluck spent some time in Dresden, and later went The opera composer of back to Vienna. In the autumn of Gluck was filling such an engagement at Hamburg.
Thence he went to Copenhagen, upon an invitation from the royal Danish court to write a festival cantata. His stay at Copenhagen is noteworthy only in so far as it brought him into contact with those days led a vagrant life, as Christopk JVillibald Gluck 43 Johann Adolf Scheibe, a mediocre composer, but a keen critic and astute theorist.
Gluck possessed, in the same measure as Wagner, the aptitude for absorbing, and improving upon, the ideas of others. Thus he not only fell heir to the melodies of his traceable in more than one of homeland, his later works, but successively he profited by the lessons of the contrapuntist Czernohorsky, the har- monist Sammartini, the balladist Arne, and finally of the sesthetician Scheibe.
The last- named, who extolled the merits of Lully and Rameau, and condemned all that was Italian, had probably the greatest influence upon the course which Gluck's development now It was Scheibe who pronounced the took. The book contains in sum and substance his year "Critical in 44 all Alia Breve of Gluck's later principles of "operatic Gluck did not put these ideas to a he wrote "Telemacco" for the Teatro Argentina of Rome, in , which was the first example of the later "Gluckian" reform.
On his return to Vienna, from Copen- hagen, he asked for the hand of one of his Marianna, the daughter of Joseph Pergin, a wealthy money-lender and trader. But the father refused to have a musician When Gluck learned in for son-in-law.
It proved a very happy marriage, for loving and meek Marianna was easily overawed by the splendid selfishness of her great husband. After the production of two in Rome, in , Gluck was new operas raised to the rank of a papal nobile. Although no record of the patent seems to exist in the archives Chris to ph IVillibald Gluck 45 of the Vatican, the fact remains that from that time on he signed himself, and was known as the "Chevalier Gluck.
The man who provided Gluck with the first libretto that answered the demands of Scheibe was the Italian Calzabigi in Vienna. Not man with dramatic "Orfeo ed Euridice," a subject dear to operatic composers since the days of Monteverdi, in a manner that a great poet, but a instinct, he treated afforded Gluck the opportunity to "innovations. Il vole sur un boulet de canon par exemple ou monte un. He is passionate. Both musicians have performed in a large number of concerts and recordings and have taken part in ma.
Details Listen. Il vole sur un boulet de canon par exemple ou monte un chev. Grade: 4 - 5. Young players will be delighted with familiar carols suc. Imagine Le Vent Vol. Description Faber Piano Adventures: Sightreading Book - Level 1 Level 1 students can have lots of fun while developing strong sight-reading skills. This inventive course uses sets of exercises based on melodic and rhythmic patt. Cookies allow us to personalize content and ads, to provide social media-related features and analyze our traffic.
American Company About. And when I am playing music, the score is most definitely not black and white: chromatic passages, in particular, are extremely vivid and colourful. When I am working, I do not add my synaesthetic colours to the score — this would only add to all the other annotations that are scribbled on my music. But I am always aware of the colour scheme as I am working, and it definitely informs my practising. However, these are not the work of a synaesthete; rather a means of mapping the music in a more visual, easy-to-follow way.
Aristotle wrote that the harmony of colours was like the harmony of sounds. From the late 15th century, academics, scientists including Isaac Newton and musicians were assigning colour schemes to notation, intervals, and the musical scale.
Musicians who were genuine synaesthetes include Franz Lizst, American pianist and composer, Amy Beach , who had both perfect pitch and a set of personal colours for musical keys, Rimsky-Korsakov, and Olivier Messaien. English composer Sir Arthur Bliss wrote a Colour Symphony, but this is not the product of a synaesthetic mind.
The fourth Vingt Regard, which I am studying, is full of chords with rich layers of colours stacked atop one another, flashes of bright gold, orange, royal blue, deep red. Combinations of colours were very important in his compositional process. I see colours intellectually, in my head.
Only if the pitch altered would the colour change my experience is identical. His colour associations were very consistent as mine are , and so to help musicians understand his particular colour schemes, he annotated his scores with the precise colours he perceived. I have yet to meet a fellow synaesthete who is also a musician. The subject fascinates me, in a non-scientific way, and I would be delighted to hear from other musicians who also see colours, either when they listen to music, or when they read it off the score.
My experience tends to be more intense when I am actually reading music. My colours are in brackets. As a general rule, minor keys are a more muted version of their major counterparts. Enharmonic keys are different, however: while D-flat major is a pale greeny-blue, C-sharp major is deep red; F-sharp major is purple, which G-flat major is a pale yellow-orange. Neither can politeness nor indulgence toward the fairer sex be permitted even a mere consideration. Despite music being perceived solely through the ears, there can be no excuse to offend the eyes with such wild antics being carried on in public.
It is their last album of the s to feature original drummer Bill Bruford before he left to join King Crimson. After touring their previous album, Fragile , the group assembled at Advision Studios in London to record a follow-up, ideas for which had been put down since February The album marked a development in the band's songwriting, with Jon Anderson and Steve Howe writing the minute title track, the band's longest song at the time.
Bruford found the album particularly laborious to make, which influenced his decision to leave the band after it was recorded. Classic Yes is the second compilation album by the English rock band Yes, released in November by Atlantic Records.
It was released after the group had disbanded in early following their tour in support of their tenth studio album, Drama The tracks were compiled by bassist Chris Squire and the cover was designed by Roger Dean.
A triple album, the set is compiled of live recordings from radio broadcasts and concert tours between and , mostly from guitarist Steve Howe's tape collection. Yesstory is a double CD and triple LP career-spanning distillation of music by progressive rock band Yes that had originally appeared on the box set Yesyears.
Yesstory was issued in lacking the rarity material that had characterized its parent release. Following the departure of keyboardist Rick Wakeman and the addition of guitarist, keyboardist, and producer Billy Sherwood in , Sherwood and bassist Chris Squire started to develop songs for an album by their own band, Conspiracy. They caught the attention of their new management who suggested to use some of their material for a new Yes studio album.
Jon Anderson and guitarist Steve Howe's late involvement caused their creative input to be limited. Their only studio album recorded with six full-time members in its line-up, work began at the end of their one-year world tour in support of their previous album Open Your Eyes and in celebration of the band's thirtieth anniversary.
During the album's mixing stage, Fairbairn died unexpectedly and Yes dedicated it to him. The Ultimate Yes: 35th Anniversary Collection is a triple compilation album by progressive rock band Yes, was released in in the United Kingdom and in early in the United States, and covers the length and breadth of the band's thirty-five-year career.
The song is just over ten minutes in length and consists of four movements. The first and second parts of the song were released as a single edit and reached 42 on the Billboard Hot Fragile is the fourth studio album by English progressive rock band Yes, released in November by Atlantic Records.
Following the success of their tour to support their previous album, The Yes Album , the band regrouped in London to work on a follow-up. Early into the sessions, keyboardist Tony Kaye was fired over his reluctance to play synthesisers and replaced with Rick Wakeman of the Strawbs, whose experience with a wider variety of keyboards expanded the group's sound.
Four tracks on Fragile are group compositions; the remaining five are solo pieces written by each member. Its cover is the band's first designed by Roger Dean, who would design many of their future covers and stage sets.Prelude and Fugue, for keyboard No. 1 in C major (WTC I/1), BWV (BC L80) Brandenburg Concerto No. 3 in G major, BWV Allegro Adagio Allegro Concerto for flute, violin, harpsichord, strings & continuo in A minor ("Triple"), BWV Allegro Adagio ma non tanto e dolce Alla breve Orchestral Suite No. 2 in B minor, BWV Overture Rondeau.